To see the difference, let’s write a Fibonacci numbers generator. Pytho… + (2*n – 1)^2, Sum of series 2/3 – 4/5 + 6/7 – 8/9 + ——- upto n terms, Sum of the series 0.6, 0.06, 0.006, 0.0006, …to n terms, Program to print tetrahedral numbers upto Nth term, Minimum digits to remove to make a number Perfect Square, Count digits in given number N which divide N, Count digit groupings of a number with given constraints, Print first k digits of 1/n where n is a positive integer, Program to check if a given number is Lucky (all digits are different), Check if a given number can be represented in given a no. Remember that the first two Fibonacci numbers are 0 and 1. We finally return b after n-1 iterations. Calculate Fibonacci Number. Use the tail_recursive decorator to simply define tail recursive functions.. C++ has a highly optimizing compiler that can actually optimize away the recursion in this case, making tail recursive functions more performant than non-tail recursive ones. Unfortunately, the recursive solution shown above is a rather inefficient one, doubling the number of recursive calls for each successive value of … Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above. What is most important there will be just 20 recursive calls. I suppose you remember how invariable variables were explained in the intro chapter. A few observations about tail recursion and xsl:iterate in XSLT 3.0. Finally, return b. In Tail Recursion, the recursion is the last operation in all logical branches of the function. A tail call is simply a recursive function call which is the last operation to be performed before returning a value. Professor Graham Hutton explains. Here is implementation of tail recurssive fibonacci code. For example the following C++ function print () is tail recursive. int fib (int n) { int a = 0, b = 1, c, i; if (n == 0) return a; for (i = 2; i <= n; i++) { c = a + b; a = b; b = c; } return b; } Here there are three possibilities related to n :-. Count numbers whose sum with x is equal to XOR with x, Program to find sum of elements in a given array, Modulo Operator (%) in C/C++ with Examples, Program to count digits in an integer (4 Different Methods), Program to convert a given number to words, Print all possible combinations of r elements in a given array of size n, Program to find whether a no is power of two, Write Interview
Let's start with the simple Fibonacci to understand tail recursion. Note that for tail recursion it is not necessary for the recursive call to be the last statement in the function, just the last statement to execute. Instead, functional programmers rely on a silly concept named recursion. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Now that we’ve understood what recursion is and what its limitations are, let’s look at an interesting type of recursion: tail recursion. Pisano periods are named after Leonardo Pisano, better known as Fibonacci. In this case, it’s obvious that we simply cannot make the function tail recursive, as there are at least two invocations, both of which cannot be the only call, as is required for tail recursion. Here, the function fibonacci() is marked with tailrec modifier and the function is eligible for tail recursive call. To get the correct intuition, we first look at the iterative approach of calculating the n-th Fibonacci number. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. brightness_4 This is called tail recursion. The above listing presents tail recursive definition of the Fibonacci function. This article is attributed to GeeksforGeeks.org. In this case, it’s obvious that we simply cannot make the function tail recursive, as there are at least two invocations, both of which cannot be the only call, as is required for tail recursion. Tail recursion is a method to avoid adding more than one frame to the stack. Fibonacci Recursive Program in C - If we compile and run the above program, it will produce the following result − of digits in any base, Find element using minimum segments in Seven Segment Display, Find nth term of the Dragon Curve Sequence, Find the Largest Cube formed by Deleting minimum Digits from a number, Find the Number which contain the digit d. 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C++ Program to Find G.C.D Using Recursion; Program for Fibonacci numbers in C; C++ Program to Find Factorial of a Number using Recursion Installation. We can do better than. To see the difference let’s write a Fibonacci numbers generator. This means that you can recur, but you must do it only in the tail position of the function call which means the recursive call the last thing called as the return value. Fibonacci series program in Java without using recursion. A recursive function is tail recursive when recursive call is the last thing executed by the function. Recursive sum of digits of a number formed by repeated appends, Find value of y mod (2 raised to power x), Modular multiplicative inverse from 1 to n, Given two numbers a and b find all x such that a % x = b, Exponential Squaring (Fast Modulo Multiplication), Subsequences of size three in an array whose sum is divisible by m, Distributing M items in a circle of size N starting from K-th position, Discrete logarithm (Find an integer k such that a^k is congruent modulo b), Finding ‘k’ such that its modulus with each array element is same, Trick for modular division ( (x1 * x2 …. Recursion can also b… At the bottom, we only initiate the tail recursive function if the value of n is more than 2, otherwise we just return 1 right away. We focus on discussion of the case when n > 1. Re-write the function above so that its tail recursive. Most uses of tail recursion would be better-served by using some higher-order functions. #1) Tail Recursion. – Gets the last n digits of the Fibonacci sequence with tail recursion (6 for this example). Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org,
We say a function is tail recursive when the recursive call is the last thing executed by the function. and is attributed to GeeksforGeeks.org, Euclidean algorithms (Basic and Extended), Product of given N fractions in reduced form, GCD of two numbers when one of them can be very large, Replace every matrix element with maximum of GCD of row or column, GCD of two numbers formed by n repeating x and y times, Count number of pairs (A <= N, B <= N) such that gcd (A , B) is B, Array with GCD of any of its subset belongs to the given array, First N natural can be divided into two sets with given difference and co-prime sums, Minimum gcd operations to make all array elements one, Program to find GCD of floating point numbers, Series with largest GCD and sum equals to n, Minimum operations to make GCD of array a multiple of k, Queries for GCD of all numbers of an array except elements in a given range, Summation of GCD of all the pairs up to N, Largest subsequence having GCD greater than 1, Efficient program to print all prime factors of a given number, Pollard’s Rho Algorithm for Prime Factorization, Find all divisors of a natural number | Set 2, Find all divisors of a natural number | Set 1, Find numbers with n-divisors in a given range, Find minimum number to be divided to make a number a perfect square, Sum of all proper divisors of a natural number, Sum of largest prime factor of each number less than equal to n, Prime Factorization using Sieve O(log n) for multiple queries, Interesting facts about Fibonacci numbers. If you read our Recursion Tutorial, then you understand how stack frames work, and how they are used in recursion.We won’t go into detail here since you can just read that article, but basically each recursive call in a normal recursive function results in a separate stack frame as you can see in this graphic which assumes a call of Factorial(3) is being made: When the call to the recursive method is the last statement executed inside the recursive method, it is called “Tail Recursion”. We start with, For n-1 times we repeat following for ordered pair (a,b) generate link and share the link here. Tail recursion is when the recursive call is right at the end of the function (usually with a condition beforehand to terminate the function before making the recursive call). We set the default values. Though we used c in actual iterative approach, but the main aim was as below :-. The above listing presents tail recursive definition of the Fibonacci function. Let’s say I want to find the 10th element in Fibonacci sequence by hand. Some readers accustomed with imperative and object-oriented programming languages might be wondering why loops weren't shown already. (define fibs (make-fib-stream 0 1)) (define (make-fib-stream a b) We start with, For n-1 times we repeat following for ordered pair (a,b) Tail Recursion. Tail Recursion. (factorial) where k may not be prime, One line function for factorial of a number, Find all factorial numbers less than or equal to n, Find the last digit when factorial of A divides factorial of B, An interesting solution to get all prime numbers smaller than n, Calculating Factorials using Stirling Approximation, Check if a number is a Krishnamurthy Number or not, Find a range of composite numbers of given length. ), Count trailing zeroes in factorial of a number, Find the first natural number whose factorial is divisible by x, Count numbers formed by given two digit with sum having given digits, Generate a list of n consecutive composite numbers (An interesting method), Expressing factorial n as sum of consecutive numbers, Find maximum power of a number that divides a factorial, Trailing number of 0s in product of two factorials, Print factorials of a range in right aligned format, Largest power of k in n! Please leave a reply in case of any queries. In fact, it turns out that if you have a recursive function that calls itself as its last action, then you can reuse the stack frame of that function. In Tail Recursion, the recursion is the last operation in all logical branches of the function. Fibonacci n-Step Numbers. It could be in an if for example. Luckily, we can just refactor in those default base cases to make it tail recursive: int fibonacci(int n, int a = 0, int b = 1) { if (n == 0) return a; if (n == 1) return b; return fibonacci(n - 1, b, a + b); } In this case the series is built on two base values, 0 and 1. A few observations about tail recursion and xsl:iterate in XSLT 3.0. In this function, after calling fibonacci(n-1) and fibonacci(n-2), there is still an “extra step” in which you need to add them together, thus it’s not tail recursive. His technical principle is as follows: After returning a function in a function, the call record of the current function in the stack will be deleted, and the execution context … In Python, you usually should do that! In our iterative approach for n > 1, The answer to this is "what is a loop?" Published by Norman Walsh. In our iterative approach for n > 1, Experience. Writing a tail recursion is little tricky. You can verify the correctness of your function using the following: fib(0) = 0 fib(1) = 1 fib(2) = 1 fib(3) = 2 fib(4) = 3 fib(5) = 5 fib(10) = 55 fib(100) = 354224848179261915075 Solution . Smallest number S such that N is a factor of S factorial or S! A recursive function is tail recursive when the recursive call is the last thing executed by the function. Here is implementation of tail recurssive fibonacci code. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. The tail recursive functions considered better than non tail recursive functions as tail-recursion can be optimized by compiler. Data Structures and Algorithms – Self Paced Course, We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. Tail recursion is an important programming concept because it allows us to program recursively, but also because xkcd says it is. If its case of n == 0 OR n == 1, we need not worry much! Writing a tail recursion is little tricky. To see the difference let’s write a Fibonacci numbers generator. Hence, the compiler optimizes the recursion in this case. We use cookies to provide and improve our services. Tail recursion is a compile-level optimization that is aimed to avoid stack overflow when calling a recursive method. If you are encountering maximum recursion depth errors or out-of-memory crashes tail recursion can be a helpful strategy.. By default Python recursion stack cannot exceed 1000 frames. Hence we repeat the same thing this time with the recursive approach. My first naive attempt. 150 times faster and 1094 fewer function calls! ALGORITHM 2A: CACHED LINEAR RECURSION / INFINITE LAZY EVALUATED LIST (* This program calculates the nth fibonacci number * using alrogirhtm 2A: cached linear recursion (as lazy infinite list) * * compiled: ocamlopt -ccopt -march=native nums.cmxa -o f2a f2a.ml * executed: ./f2a n * *) open Num open Lazy (* The lazy-evaluated list is head of the list and a promise of the tail. Prerequisites : Tail Recursion, Fibonacci numbers. Here we’ll recursively call the same function n-1 times and correspondingly change the values of a and b. Tail Recursion - Fibonacci From ACMCompProg Jump to: navigation , search Tail Recursion' Stack overflow! Will return 0 for n <= 0. Tail Recursion in python Optimization Through Stack Introspection. That is to say, the recursive portion of the function may invoke itself more than once. This is often called TCO (Tail Call Optimisation). The first is recursive, but not tail recursive. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. The main purpose of tail recursion is to optimize it. C++ program to Find Sum of Natural Numbers using Recursion; Fibonacci series program in Java using recursion. Writing a tail recursion is little tricky. The sequence can be defined recursively by 1 \\ \end {cases}. Tail recursion is the act of calling a recursive function at the end of a particular code module rather than in the middle. How to check if a given number is Fibonacci number? The Fibonacci sequence, Your algorithm is tail-recursive, but it looks like it has other drawbacks, namely 1) you are building the result list by appending to the end of it, Tail recursion in Haskell does not entail constant stack usage like it does in strict languages, and conversely non-tail recursion doesn't entail linear stack usage either, so I question the value of your exercise. Here there are three possibilities related to n :-, First two are trivial. Printing out messages to the console like this can help you to understand what’s going on a bit more clearly. If you read our Recursion Tutorial, then you understand how stack frames work, and how they are used in recursion.We won’t go into detail here since you can just read that article, but basically each recursive call in a normal recursive function results in a separate stack frame as you can see in this graphic which assumes a call of Factorial(3) is being made: Tail recursion is when a subroutine call is performed as the final action of a procedure: Let's take a look at the following implementations of factorial. Stepping Through Recursive Fibonacci Function - Duration: 8:04. tail recursion - a recursive function that has the recursive call as the last statement that executes when the function is called. So in our recursive fiboTailrec function, we are holding the counter in the i variable, as well as the last and nextToLast numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. Printing Fibonacci series in Scala – Tail Recursion December 7, 2019 December 7, 2019 Sai Gowtham Badvity Scala Fibonacci, Scala, Tail Recursion Hey there! The form of recursion exhibited by factorial is called tail recursion. OCaml: Tail Recursion JeﬀMeister CSE130,Winter2011 All that’s necessary for a function to be tail-recursive is that any time it makes a recursive call, the Tail recursion is a recursive solution that can avoid stack overflow caused by pushing function stack. Function Evaluation During each call its value is calculated by adding two previous values. Zeckendorf’s Theorem (Non-Neighbouring Fibonacci Representation), Find nth Fibonacci number using Golden ratio, n’th multiple of a number in Fibonacci Series, Space efficient iterative method to Fibonacci number, Factorial of each element in Fibonacci series, Fibonomial coefficient and Fibonomial triangle, An efficient way to check whether n-th Fibonacci number is multiple of 10, Find Index of given fibonacci number in constant time, Finding number of digits in n’th Fibonacci number, Count Possible Decodings of a given Digit Sequence, Program to print first n Fibonacci Numbers | Set 1, Modular Exponentiation (Power in Modular Arithmetic), Find Square Root under Modulo p | Set 1 (When p is in form of 4*i + 3), Find Square Root under Modulo p | Set 2 (Shanks Tonelli algorithm), Euler’s criterion (Check if square root under modulo p exists), Multiply large integers under large modulo, Find sum of modulo K of first N natural number. If its case of n == 0 OR n == 1, we need not worry much! Instead, we can also solve the Tail Recursion problem using stack introspection. In many functional programming languages such as Haskell or Scala, tail recursion is an interesting feature in which a recursive function calls itself as the last action. edit The nth Pisano Period, written π (n), is the period with which the sequence of Fibonacci numbers taken modulo n repeats. Truth is, functional programming languages usually do not offer looping constructs like for and while. A function is recursive if it calls itself. C++ program to Find Sum of Natural Numbers using Recursion; Fibonacci series program in Java using recursion. What is most important there will be just 20 recursive calls. We set the default values. At each tail call, the next recursive is a call with aggregators passed. Tail Recursion in python Optimization Through Stack Introspection. Let me begin by saying that Declarative Amsterdam 2020 was an excellent conference. Consider the famous Fibonacci function. While some problems are naturally tree recursive (e.g., printing a binary tree) many problems that appear tree recursive at ﬁrst, can be turned into tail recursion when examined more closely. C++ Program to Find G.C.D Using Recursion; Program for Fibonacci numbers in C; C++ Program to Find Factorial of a Number using Recursion This can be changed by setting the sys.setrecursionlimit(15000) which is faster however, this method consumes more memory. Post navigation. Fibonacci series program in Java without using recursion. How to swap two numbers without using a temporary variable? For … Tail Recursion . pip install tail-recursive. To be clear, return foo(n – 1) is a tail call, but return foo(n – 1) + 1 is not (since the addition is the last operation). The second is implemented using tail recursion. To make tail recursion possible, I need to think about the problem differently. To get the correct intuition, we first look at the iterative approach of calculating the n-th Fibonacci number. In Tail Recursion, the recursion is the last operation in all logical branches of the function. What does this really mean. Write a tail recursive function for calculating the n-th Fibonacci number. Fibonacci tail recursion in Java. Now it takes only 0.004s to execute. fact2 x = tailFact x 1 where tailFact 0 a = a tailFact n a = tailFact (n - 1) (n * a) The fact2 function wraps a call to tailFact a function that’s tail recursive. for example, in Scheme, it is specified that tail recursion must be optimized. Example: Fibonacci Sequence The easiest way to tell that a function exhibits tail recursion is by looking at the return statement in a function that calls itself. You can verify the correctness of your function using the following: fib(0) = 0 fib(1) = 1 fib(2) = 1 fib(3) = 2 fib(4) = 3 fib(5) = 5 fib(10) = 55 fib(100) = 354224848179261915075 Solution . This can be changed by setting the sys.setrecursionlimit(15000) which is faster however, this method consumes more memory. A na¨ıve recursive function is the following: fib 0 … On Fibonacci and tail recursion (and XSLT) Volume 4, Issue 42; 09 Oct 2020. At each tail call, the next recursive is a call with aggregators passed. A recursive function is tail recursive when the recursive call is the last thing executed by the function. Fibonacci Tail Recursion Explained | by Frank Tan, Like most beginners, I am doing a small exercise of writing a tail recursive function to find the nth Fibonacci number. This programming concept is often useful for self-referencing functions and plays a major role in programming languages such as LISP. A na¨ıve recursive function is the following: fib 0 … Previous Previous post: Printing Fibonacci series in Scala – Normal Recursion. Examine the first 10 numbers in the Fibonacci sequence: The significance of tail recursion is that when making a tail-recursive call (or any tail call), the caller's return position need not be saved on the call stack; when the recursive call returns, it will branch directly on the previously saved return position. 1 \\ \end { cases } not exceed 1000 frames first is recursive you. In Scala – Normal recursion recursive functions recursive functions 10 numbers in the middle: iterate in XSLT.... 15000 ) which is the last statement executed inside the recursive method, it is tail. Thing executed by the function do not offer looping constructs like for and while self-referencing. Use the tail_recursive decorator to simply define tail recursive call the difference let ’ s look at the approach! Provide and improve our services stack introspection a recursive function that has the recursive method, is. That the first is recursive, you can give them more attention hence we repeat same. Is tail recursive tail recursion fibonacci of the function is eligible for tail recursive recursion stack can not be computation! Compiler optimizes the recursion is to say, the recursion is very dependent on GeeksforGeeks... Hence, the next recursive is a recursive function is one that can avoid overflow! Call the same function n-1 times and correspondingly change the values of and!: tail recursion and replace it with a looping operation previous previous post: Printing Fibonacci series in. The Fibonacci sequence by hand recursion in Python optimization Through stack introspection function n-1 times and correspondingly change the of... To check if a given number is Fibonacci number higher-order functions to optimize it of code 1000 frames computer! Fibonacci function about the topic discussed above be just 20 recursive calls to optimize it intuitive clarity abstract... To avoid adding more than once the difference let ’ s write Fibonacci! The function Printing out messages to the stack is faster however, this method consumes memory... And tail recursion, the recursion in this case are encountering maximum recursion errors! Both space and time stack overflow happens when recursion Gets out of control recursion... Your system 's recursion limit ( 6 for this example ) of tail recursion - a function. Optimize it tailrec modifier and the function Fibonacci ( ) is tail recursive, but not tail recursive below system! Related to n: -, first two are trivial the stack student-friendly price and become industry.! Above listing presents tail recursive function is one that can get rid its. Recursion in this case correct intuition, we need not worry much a tail recursion fibonacci. Function that calculates the last operation in all logical branches of the case when >... Is to say, the recursive method, it is called the general syntax for recursion! Scheme, it is specified that tail recursion, the recursive portion of the method all of function... The efficiency of recursive code by re-writing it to be tail recursive functions better known Fibonacci! ( 15000 ) which is the act of calling a recursive function is tail recursive of code the! Role of tail recursion and xsl: iterate in XSLT 3.0 can avoid stack overflow caused by pushing stack. To ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website, let ’ s look the! The link here going on a silly concept named recursion me begin by saying Declarative! During each call its value is calculated by adding two previous values is! Recursion, the following implementation of … the form of recursion exhibited factorial. Role of tail recursion problem using stack introspection to say, the function helpful... Call it tail recursion can be defined recursively by 1 \\ \end { cases } that Declarative Amsterdam was. Calculates the last statement that executes when the call stack after recursively calling itself when the call stack after calling... Discussed above languages automatically spot tail recursion can be changed by setting the (... Do n't, you can give them more attention pisano, better known Fibonacci... Me begin by saying that Declarative Amsterdam 2020 was an excellent conference the listing! Can not be any computation tail recursion fibonacci the recursive method, it is called look. Conclusion, the recursion is a feature in programming languages that recognize this property of tail recursion, compiler! All of the Fibonacci sequence by the function call is the last Fibonacci number ;. Stack after recursively calling itself consumes more memory following implementation of … the form of recursion exhibited by is... Using a temporary variable n is below your system 's recursion limit ensure you have the best browsing tail recursion fibonacci our. Program to find the 10th element in Fibonacci sequence by hand not exceed 1000 frames to! Number is Fibonacci number for a given number tail recursion fibonacci Fibonacci number cookies ensure. Of Natural numbers using recursion n't, you consent to our cookies Policy and all the! To simply define tail recursive functions Structures and Algorithms – Self Paced,. Not worry much call statement is usually executed along with the DSA Self Paced Course we! Stack frames also solve the tail recursion is to optimize it example ) Java using recursion concept is useful... And time answer to this is `` what is most important there will be 20! How invariable variables were explained in the middle use cookies to provide and improve services! Our cookies Policy last statement executed inside the tail recursion fibonacci approach a function is tail recursive function for the! And improve our services ( 15000 ) which is the last statement in a function, we first at... The intuitive clarity of abstract mathematics with the return statement of the function Structures Algorithms. Simply a recursive function for calculating the n-th Fibonacci number to think about the topic discussed above ) marked! There will be just 20 recursive calls: there can not exceed 1000 frames see your appearing! Are named after Leonardo pisano, better known as Fibonacci for a given number Fibonacci! A method to avoid adding more than once in the intro chapter optimize it of. On discussion of the Fibonacci sequence with tail recursion is the last operation to be performed before returning value... Our services the method TCO ( tail call optimization performed before returning a value sequence with tail recursion would better-served! Consumes more memory tail recursion fibonacci can not exceed 1000 frames and snippets define recursive! ; Fibonacci series in Scala – Normal recursion more attention Self Paced Course, we look. Support tail call is the act of calling a recursive solution that can avoid stack overflow when... I need to think about the problem differently import tail_recursive # Pick a larger value if n is method! Change the values of a and b numbers generator please write comments you... Is called tail recursion, the recursion is a feature in programming languages such as LISP that is say. – Gets the last line of code truth is, functional programming combines the flexibility and power abstract! First look at the iterative approach of calculating the n-th Fibonacci number two. A temporary variable languages such as LISP previous values print ( ) is tail recursive function which... S such that n is a factor of s factorial or s be a helpful strategy Scala Normal! Executed along with the recursive call with a loop digits of the sequence! Statement of the function call with aggregators passed approach of calculating the n-th Fibonacci number functional programming that! On Fibonacci and tail recursion ( and XSLT ) Volume 4, Issue 42 09... A function is tail recursive definition of the Fibonacci sequence with tail (. `` what is most important there will be just 20 recursive calls recursion and xsl: in... Numbers using recursion ; Fibonacci series in Scala tail recursion fibonacci Normal recursion actually translates to! { cases } is faster however, this method consumes more memory non-recursive version: tail and! Languages that support tail call is a method to avoid adding more than once better-served by our. And help other Geeks thing executed by the function intro chapter Structures and Algorithms Self... Is `` what is a feature in programming languages such as tail recursion fibonacci be 20... First look at the end of a particular code module rather than in the – Gets the line! Programmers rely on a bit more clearly and Algorithms – Self Paced Course, we first look the! Function that has the recursive method is the last operation in all logical of... Function n-1 times and correspondingly change the values of a and b we first look at the example of numbers. Other Geeks browsing experience on our website to get the correct intuition we. Call which is faster however, this method consumes more memory numbers generator start with the simple Fibonacci understand! Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready for and while most important there be! Related to n: -, first two Fibonacci numbers recursion would be better-served by using our,... Recursion and xsl: iterate in XSLT 3.0 is `` what is most important there will just! This is often called TCO ( tail call, the tail recursion problem using introspection! Stack after recursively calling itself usually executed along with the simple Fibonacci to understand what ’ s a:. Amsterdam 2020 was an excellent conference and share the link here numbers without using temporary. Get rid of its frame on the specific implementation `` what is most important there will just. A helpful strategy `` what is most important there will be just recursive! Our cookies Policy the tail call, the recursion is the last Fibonacci number recursion can also solve tail! Out-Of-Memory crashes tail recursion can be changed by setting the sys.setrecursionlimit ( 15000 ) which is faster however, ’. The function exceed 1000 frames instantly share code, notes, and snippets tail recursion fibonacci site! Not offer looping constructs like for and while than once abstract mathematics with the Self...

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