He encountered the allies at the Battle of Fornovo, and after a drawn fight cut his way through them and was back in France by November; Ferdinand II was reinstated at Naples soon afterwards, though with Spanish help. He was named pope in 1492, taking the name Alexander VI. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_4',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_5',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_6',167,'0','2'])); Pope Alexander VI's career is not known for great political ideals and his actions generally do not indicate genius. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Pope Alexander VI (January 1, 1431 – August 18, 1503), born Rodrigo Borja (Italian: Rodrigo Borgia), Pope from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the Popes of the Renaissance, whose surname became a byword for low standards in the papacy of that era. The disorganization of the Curia was appalling, the sale of offices became a veritable scandal, the least opposition to the Borgia was punished with death, and even in that corrupt age the state of things shocked public opinion. He was born at Xàtiva, València, Spain, and his father's surname was Lanzol or Llançol; that of his mother's family, Borgia or Borja, was assumed by him on the elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Pope Calixtus III (1455 –1458) on April 8, 1455. According to Burchard, Alexander VI's stomach became swollen and turned to liquid, while his face became wine-colored and his skin began to peel off. Alexander VI – AKA Rodrigo Borja (Borgia) – was Pope from 1492 until his death in 1503. Some of these related to the finances of the Church, whilst others concerned the city and people of Rome. During his pontificate the Church was brought to its lowest level of degradation. Pope Alexander VI is often considered the most evil man ever to hold the papal office. Omissions? To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. of the Popes", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. But his military force was uncertain, for the condottieri were not to be trusted. He proclaimed the year 1500 a Holy Year of Jubilee and authorized its celebration with great pomp. Now occurred the first of those ugly domestic tragedies for which the house of Borgia remained famous. His son and daughter were also lovers. Alexander VI, although he could not get Savonarola into his own hands, browbeat the Florentine government into condemning the reformer to death (May 23, 1498). Devenu pape, Alexandre VI Borgia continue de vivre en grand seigneur de la Renaissance, tout en observant strictement ses devoirs religieux ! In this he was opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand II. Born as Rodrigo Borgia in Spain in 1431, he was elected Pope in 1492, an event that spawned rumors that he had spent a considerable fortune bribing the appropriate Cardinals to assure his success. Pope Alexander VI - Slavery. At the time however, he was not considered as such and so the fifth true Pope Alexander took the official number VI. After his uncle's election as Pope he was created successively bishop, Cardinal and vice-chancellor of the church, an act of nepotism characteristic of the age. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. Her place in his affections was filled by the beautiful Giulia Farnese (Giulia Bella), wife of an Orsini, but his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career. (Note on numbering: Pope Alexander V is now considered an anti-pope. Pope Alexander VI, born Roderic Borgia (Valencian: Roderic Llançol i de Borja (Valencian pronunciation: [roðeˈɾiɡ ʎanˈsɔɫ i ðe ˈβɔɾdʒa], Spanish: Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja [roˈðɾiɣo lanˈθol i ðe ˈβorxa]); 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death. Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the Pope's authority, were subjugated, and a great step achieved towards consolidating the Borgia's power. Alexander VI. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his surname (Italianized as Borgia) became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. In June 1502 he seized Camerino and Urbino, the news of which capture filled the pope with childish joy. Of his many mistresses the one for whom his passion lasted longest was a certain Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattani, born in 1442, and wife of three successive husbands. Lucrezia had been promised to the Spaniard Don Gasparo de Procida, but on her father's elevation to the papacy the engagement was cancelled, and in 1493 she was married to Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro, the ceremony being celebrated at the Vatican Palace with unparalleled magnificence. Early life. Pope Alexander VI was the Spanish-born 214th Pope. Alexander VI appealed to Ascanio Sforza for help, and even to the Sultan. Charles VIII had himself crowned King of Naples on May 12, but a few days later began his retreat northward. 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